Databases and service containers

Bitbucket Pipelines allows you to run multiple Docker containers from your build pipeline. You'll want to start additional containers if your pipeline requires additional services when testing and operating your application. These extra services may include data stores, code analytics tools and stub web services.

You define these additional services (and other resources) in the definitions section of the bitbucket-pipelines.yml file. These services can then be referenced in the configuration of any pipeline that needs them.

When a pipeline runs, services referenced in a step of your bitbucket-pipeline.yml will be scheduled to run with your pipeline step. These services share a network adapter with your build container and all open their ports on localhost. No port mapping or hostnames are required. For example, if you were using Postgres, your tests just connect to port 5432 on localhost. The service logs are also visible in the Pipelines UI if you need to debug anything.

Pipelines enforces a maximum of 5 service containers per build step. See sections below for how memory is allocated to service containers.

Tutorial

In the following tutorial you’ll learn how to define a service and how to use it in a pipeline.

Before you begin

Services in Pipelines have the following limitations:

  • Maximum of 5 services for a step

  • Memory limits as described above

  • No REST API for accessing services and logs under pipeline results

  • No mechanism to wait for service startup.

  • If you want to run a larger number of small services, use Docker run or docker-compose.

  • Port 29418 can’t be used.

Define a service

Services are defined in the definitions section of the bitbucket-pipelines.yml file.

For example, the following defines two services: one named redis that uses the library image redis from Docker Hub (version 3.2), and another named database that uses the official Docker Hub MySQL image (version 5.7).

The variables section allows you define variables, either literal values or existing pipelines variables.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 definitions: services: redis: image: redis:3.2 mysql: image: mysql:5.7 variables: MYSQL_DATABASE: my-db MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: $password

Service memory limits

Each service definition can also define a custom memory limit for the service container, by using the memory keyword (in megabytes).

The relevant memory limits and default allocations are as follows:

  • Regular steps have 4096 MB of memory in total, large build steps (which you can define using size: 2x) have 8192 MB in total.

  • The build container is given 1024 MB of the total memory, which covers your build process and some Pipelines overheads (agent container, logging, etc).

  • The total memory for services on each pipeline step must not exceed the remaining memory, which is 3072/7128 MB for 1x/2x steps respectively.

  • Service containers get 1024 MB memory by default, but can be configured to use between 128 MB and the step maximum (3072/7128 MB).

  • The Docker-in-Docker daemon used for Docker operations in Pipelines is treated as a service container, and so has a default memory limit of 1024 MB. This can also be adjusted to any value between 128 MB and 3072/7128 MB by changing the memory setting on the built-in docker service in the definitions section.

In the example below, the build container has a memory limit of 2048 MB:

  • Docker has 512 MB

  • Redis has 512 MB

  • MySQL uses the default memory limit (1024 MB)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 default: - step: services: - redis - mysql - docker script: - echo "This step is only allowed to consume 2048 MB of memory" - echo "Services are consuming the rest. docker 512 MB, redis 512 MB, mysql 1024 MB" definitions: services: redis: image: redis:3.2 memory: 512 docker: memory: 512 # reduce memory for docker-in-docker from 1GB to 512MB mysql: image: mysql:5.7 # memory: 1024 # default value variables: MYSQL_DATABASE: my-db MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: $password


Use a service in a pipeline

If  a service has been defined in the 'definitions' section of the bitbucket-pipelines.yml file, you can reference that service in any of your pipeline steps.

For example, the following causes the redis service to run with the step:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 default: - step: image: node script: - npm install - npm test services: - redis


Use a private image

You can define a service that has restricted access like in the following example:

1 2 3 4 5 6 services: redis: image:  name: redis:3.2 username: username@organisation.com password: $DOCKER_PASSWORD

For more complete example of using docker images from different registries and different formats, see Use Docker images as build environments

Complete example

This example bitbucket-pipelines.yml file shows both the definition of a service and its use in a pipeline step. A breakdown of how it works is presented below.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 BITBUCKET-PIPELINES.YMLpipelines: branches: master: - step: image: redis script: - redis-cli -h localhost ping services: - redis - mysql definitions: services: redis: image: redis:3.2 mysql: image: mysql:5.7 variables: MYSQL_DATABASE: my-db MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: $password

Test with databases in Bitbucket Pipelines

When testing with a database, we recommend that you use service containers to run database services in a linked container. Docker has a number of official images of popular databases on Docker Hub.

This page has example bitbucket-pipelines.yml files showing how to connect to the following DB types.

You can check your bitbucket-pipelines.yml file with our online validator.

See also Use services and databases in Bitbucket Pipelines.

Alternatively, you can use a Docker image that contains the database you need – see Use a Docker image configured with a database on this page.

MongoDB

Using the Mongo image on Docker Hub.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 image: node:10.15.0 pipelines: default: - step: script: - npm install - npm test services: - mongo definitions: services: mongo: image: mongo

MongoDB will be available on 127.0.0.1:27017 without authentication. As you connect to a database, MongoDB will create it for you.

Note that MongoDB's default configuration only listens for connections on IPv4, whereas some platforms (like Ruby) default to connecting via IPv6 if your Mongo connection is configured to use localhost. This is why we recommend connecting on 127.0.0.1 rather than localhost.

MySQL – test user

Using the MySQL image on Docker Hub.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 image: node:10.15.0 pipelines: default: - step: script: - npm install - npm test services: - mysql definitions: services: mysql: image: mysql:5.7 variables: MYSQL_DATABASE: 'pipelines' MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD: 'yes' MYSQL_USER: 'test_user' MYSQL_PASSWORD: 'test_user_password'

Connecting to MySQL

If you use the example above, MySQL (version 5.7) will be available on:

  • Host name: 127.0.0.1 (avoid using localhost, as some clients will attempt to connect via a local "Unix socket", which will not work in Pipelines)

  • Port: 3306

  • Default database: pipelines

  • User: test_user, password: test_user_password. (The root user of MySQL will not be accessible.)

You will need to populate the pipelines database with your tables and schema. If you need to configure the underlying database engine further, refer to the official Docker Hub image for details.

MySQL – root user

Using the MySQL image on Docker Hub.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 image: node:10.15.0 pipelines: default: - step: script: - npm install - npm test services: - mysql definitions: services: mysql: image: mysql:5.7 variables: MYSQL_DATABASE: 'pipelines' MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: 'let_me_in'

Connecting to MySQL

If you use the example above, MySQL (version 5.7) will be available on:

  • Host name: 127.0.0.1 (avoid using localhost, as some clients will attempt to connect via a local "Unix socket", which will not work in Pipelines)

  • Port: 3306

  • Default database: pipelines

  • User: root, password: let_me_in

You will need to populate the pipelines database with your tables and schema. If you need to configure the underlying database engine further, refer to the official Docker Hub image for details.


PostgreSQL – default user

Using the Postgres image on Docker Hub.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 image: node:10.15.0 pipelines: default: - step: script: - npm install - npm test services: - postgres definitions: services: postgres: image: postgres

PostgreSQL will be available on localhost:5432 with default database 'postgres', user 'postgres' and no password. You will need to populate the postgres database with your tables and schema, or create a second database for your use. If you need to configure the underlying database engine further, please refer to the official dockerhub image for details.

PostgreSQL – test user

Using the Postgres image on Docker Hub.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 image: node:10.15.0 pipelines: default: - step: script: - npm install - npm test services: - postgres definitions: services: postgres: image: postgres variables: POSTGRES_DB: 'pipelines' POSTGRES_USER: 'test_user' POSTGRES_PASSWORD: 'test_user_password'

PostgreSQL will be available on localhost:5432 with default a database named 'pipelines', user 'test_user' and password 'test_user_password'. You will need to populate the pipelines database with your tables and schema. If you need to configure the underlying database engine further, please refer to the official dockerhub image for details.

Redis

Using the Redis image on Docker Hub.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 image: node:10.15.0 pipelines: default: - step: script: - npm install - npm test services: - redis definitions: services: redis: image: redis

Redis will be available on localhost:6379 without authentication.

Cassandra

Using the Cassandra image on Docker Hub.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 image: node:10.15.0 pipelines: default: - step: script: - npm install - sleep 10 # wait for cassandra - npm test services: - cassandra definitions: services: cassandra: image: cassandra variables: MAX_HEAP_SIZE: '512M' # Need to restrict the heapsize or else Cassandra will OOM HEAP_NEWSIZE: '128M'

Cassandra will be available on localhost:9042.

Use a Docker image configured with a database

As an alternative to running a separate container for the database (which is our recommended approach), you can use a Docker image that already has the database installed. The following images for Node and Ruby contain databases, and can be extended or modified for other languages and databases.

Last modified on Nov 19, 2020
Cached at 10:52 PM on Nov 25, 2020 |

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